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Exoplanet

Above and Beyond: Celestial Signature—The Sun’s Spectrum

Cosmic secrets hide in starlight, but astronomers possess a tool to uncover those secrets--a spectrograph.

Credits

Exoplanets
 
Produced by the Space Telescope Science Institute’s Office of Public Outreach.
 
All images, illustrations, and videos courtesy of NASA except:
 
·       Illustration of planets orbiting a red dwarf courtesy of ESO
·       Illustration montage of exoplanets courtesy of C. Pulliam & D. Aguilar (CfA)
·       Taurus constellation drawing from Firmamentum Sobiescianum sive Uranographia by Johannes Hevelius, courtesy of the United States Naval Observatory
·       Image of solar spectrum courtesy of N.A. Sharp, NOAO/NSO/Kitt Peak FTS/AURA/NSF
·       Animation of planets orbiting star HD 10180 courtesy of ESO/L. Calçada
·       Animation of transiting planet and light curve courtesy of G. Bacon and B. Preston (STScI)
·       Animation of transiting planet with spectrum courtesy of G. Bacon, B. Preston, and J. Godfrey (STScI)
·       Ariane 5 rocket launch image ©2008 ESA – CNES – Arianespace/Photo by Optique Video CSG
·       James Webb Space Telescope animation courtesy of G. Bacon (STScI)
·       Protoplanetary disk animation courtesy of ALMA (ESO/NAOJ/NRAO)/L. Calçada (ESO)/M. Kornmesser (ESO)/Nick Risinger (skysurvey.org)/Digitized Sky Survey 2
·       Animation of disk and planet around Beta Pictoris courtesy of ESO/L. Calçada
·       James Webb Space Telescope illustration courtesy of G. Bacon (STScI)/Northrop Grumman
·       Animation of HD 189733 b’s atmosphere courtesy of ESA/Hubble (M. Kornmesser & L. L. Christensen)
·       Animation of planet transiting a star courtesy of ESO/L. Calçada
·       Absorption spectrum diagram courtesy of A. Feild (STScI)
·       Illustration of exoplanet OGLE-TR-L9 b courtesy of ESO/H. Zodet
·       Water, carbon dioxide, and methane molecule animations courtesy of G. Bacon (STScI)
·       Emission spectrum of a planet courtesy of J. Godfrey (STScI)
·       Animation of exoplanet GJ 1214 b courtesy of ESO/L. Calçada
 
 
Written by Vanessa Thomas
Designed by John Godfrey
Music courtesy of Association Production Music

Transcript

(SPEECH)
[ROCK MUSIC]
 
(DESCRIPTION)
Text, CELESTIAL SIGNATURE.
 
Horizontal stripes of red, yellow, green, and blue have black splotches throughout.
 
Text, Cosmic secrets hide in starlight. Fortunately, astronomers possess a tool to uncover those secrets.
 
Called a spectrograph, this tool acts like a prism, separating light from a star into a rainbow of colors -- a spectrum.
 
Dark lines in the spectrum reveal elements and molecules in the star's atmosphere that absorb some of the starlight before it reaches Earth.
 
The exact positions of the lines tell us about the star's motion. The variation in brightness of the different colors reflects the star's temperature.
 
This is the spectrum of our star, the Sun.