ViewSpace contains copyrighted material and the use of this material outside of this website is prohibited. This product is based upon work supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under award numbers NNX16AC65A and NNX15AB26G and contracts NAS5-26555 and NAS5-03127.

STScI is not responsible for the content that is linked from our websites. As external content is out of our control and may change over time, we reserve the right to edit or remove hyperlinks that no longer return a valid pathway.


The availability of STScI materials on this website does not imply the endorsement of STScI or by any STScI employee of any private use of such materials, including, in particular, any commercial use and any use intended to mislead.

Photography: If a recognizable person appears in a photograph, use for commercial purposes may infringe a right of privacy or publicity, and permission should be obtained from the recognizable person.

Audio Recordings: Use of a portion or segment of an audiotape, such as talent, narration or music, may infringe a right of publicity or copyright, and permission should be obtained from the source.

Video or Motion Picture Recordings: Music or footage copyrighted by others, which is incorporated in a production, may not be used unless permission is obtained from the copyright owner. While in most instances using non-copyrighted segments is permitted, use for commercial purposes of a portion or segment containing talent or a recognizable person may infringe a right of publicity, and permission should be obtained from the talent or recognizable person.

Additional Notice Effective January 1, 2008

Individuals and institutions other than AURA/STScI and grantees of STScI whose work was funded by NASA are requested to state at the time they contribute materials for distribution on STScI websites whether they wish to claim any copyright restrictions. If they do not do so it will be assumed that no copyright restriction is claimed. Of course, such individuals and institutions will be given appropriate credit for their contributions. If they do claim copyright restrictions, an appropriate notice will be added to that particular material, and users who wish to download that material and distribute it further will have to obtain permission from the source of that material.

STScI is operated by the Association of Universities for research in Astronomy, Inc., under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

Please contact us at with any questions you may have regarding the above copyright statement.

Online Privacy Policy

Information We Collect

In order to understand who uses our online resources and how they are used, when you visit the STScI website or use online applications, we collect basic information such as the date and time, internet protocol (IP) address, information about your web browser and computer (computer type, browser type), the resources you visit on our site, the amount of data transmitted, etc. We use this information to generate aggregate statistics on the usage of our site. We share this aggregate information with NASA and with our parent organization (AURA). Some of this aggregate information will be made available to the public. We will not use this information to identify or track usage by individuals, except as necessary to provide user support and maintain our systems. Non-aggregated information is only available to STScI and authorized contractors.

We do not sell, rent or exchange this information to anyone outside of STScI. We use this information only for the purpose of understanding how our resources are used and how they may be improved.

A "cookie" is a piece of data that our web site transfers to your web browser to allow it to remember specific information about your visit. Some STScI web pages use cookies. We may use both session and persistent cookies. Session cookies last only as long as your web browser is open. Persistent cookies store information on your computer for longer periods of time. We use cookies to allow better navigation on our pages and to allow you to customize preferences. If you do not wish to have session or persistent cookies stored on your computer, you may disable them in your browser. However, this may prevent some STScI services from functioning properly.

Information You Supply

Some of our web pages and online applications may ask for personal information such as your e-mail address, postal address, or institutional information. We may also require you to create an account to use some of our resources. We use this information only to provide you with access to the specified service and conduct evaluations of the service. We may share this information with NASA, ESA, AURA, other astronomical institutions, and external evaluators of the service.

Information You Share

Some of our services (e.g. blogs, wikis) allow you to contribute information which will be seen by other users of those pages, or by the public. This information may be indexed by search engines such as Google or Bing. You should exercise discretion to not reveal personal information.


STScI monitors computer and network systems to ensure that our services are available to the intended users. We monitor the computer and network systems to identify attempts to deny service or make unauthorized changes. Anyone using our systems expressly consents to such monitoring and is advised that if monitoring reveals evidence of possible abuse or criminal activity, such evidence may be provided to law enforcement officials. If we see evidence of improper access, we may, without notice, remove access for some or all users in order to further investigate the situation. We will restore the service as quickly as possible and provide the community with information about the situation.

Email Subscriptions

STScI maintains lists of subscribers who have asked to receive e-mail updates. A recipient may unsubscribe from future messages via a link at the bottom of each e-mail message. We may use these lists in conjunction with external evaluators to support and improve this service. Outside of these evaluators, we do not sell, rent, exchange, or otherwise disclose our subscriber lists to persons or organizations outside STScI.

Links to External Sites

To provide you with general information, our site contains links to external (non-STScI) sites. You should realize that such links are subject to the privacy and security policies of the external site and that the STScI Online Privacy Policy does not apply. We can't guarantee the accuracy or relevance of information on an external site. A link to an external site is not an endorsement by the STScI.

Social Websites

To better communicate with the public and astronomical community, STScI uses social websites such as Facebook, Twitter and YouTube to disseminate information and to engage the community. STScI does not own, manage or control the applications on social websites. Information that you supply to those sites is subject to their privacy and security policies and the STScI Online Privacy Policy does not apply.

Data Retention

The information we collect may be retained indefinitely.


In the event of a breach, or reasonable suspicion of a breach which allows an unauthorized person to access personally identifiable information, we will inform you as soon as possible. This notice may be sent to you individually, or we may notify you via STScI applications or our social media presence.

Accessibility Statement

We strive to ensure that our resources are accessible to individuals with disabilities in accordance with Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act. If you have any difficulty viewing any page with adaptive technology, please contact


We will share any information we have, including personal information, with organizations or individuals outside of STScI if we have a good-faith belief that this is reasonably necessary to:

  • Meet applicable law, regulation, legal process or enforceable governmental request.
  • Enforce applicable policies, including investigation of potential violations.
  • Detect, prevent, or otherwise address fraud, security, or technical issues.
  • Protect against harm to the rights, property, or safety of STScI, our users or the public as required or permitted by law.

Children and Privacy

We believe in the importance of protecting the privacy of children online and do not knowingly contact or collect personal information from children under the age of 13. Our services are not intended to solicit information of any kind from children under 13. To notify us of our receipt of information from children under 13, please contact


If you have questions about this policy, or you have a privacy concern, please send an email to

Last reviewed: February 27, 2024